4A - Thermal Properties of Matter

30. Solid Expansion

4A30.1 Linear Expansion of Metal
The end of a long metal bar is attached to a sensitive positional scale. Heating the bar with a bunsen burner causes the bar to expand, and the pointer on the scale rises quickly.
[Set-Up Time: 5 min.]
[Current Condition: Good]

4A30.2 Expansion of Ball and Ring
A metal ball passes easily through a metal ring; heat the ball with a bunsen burner, and it will no longer fit through.
[Set-Up Time: 5 min.]
[Current Condition: Good]

4A30.3 Bimetallic Strip
A flat strip made of two different metals will curl when heated due to the different coefficients of expansion.
[Set-Up Time: 5 min.]
[Current Condition: Good]

40. Material Properties at Low Temperature

4A40.1 Liquid Nitrogen
Shrink and shatter air-filled balloons; freeze and break racquet balls or rubber bands; also shatter a rose.
[Set-Up Time: 10 min.; Must request one day in advance and supply rose, if desired]
[Current Condition: Good]

4B - Heat and the First Law

20. Convection

4B20.1 Convection Currents
A rectangular glass tube is heated on one side while a few drops of food coloring are added at the top, showing convection around the tube.
[Set-Up Time: 10 min.]
[Current Condition: OK]

30. Conduction

4B30.1 Different Conductivity in Iron and Copper
An iron and a copper rod are heated simultaneously. Blocks fixed to each of the rods by wax will fall off at different rates.
[Set-Up Time: 30 min. This demonstration does not work very well and is tricky to set up.]
[Current Condition: OK]

40. Radiation

4B40.1 Radiation of Heat
A candle is placed at the focus of a large, parabolic mirror. A radiometer placed at the focus of a second mirror will spin when the candle is lit.
[Set-Up Time: 20 min.]

4C - Change of State

30. Phase Changes: Liquid-Gas

4C30.1 Boiling by Cooling
NOTE: several things can go wrong during this demonstration, including broken glass and hot water splashing. for a safer version please consider 4C30.2 Boiling at Reduced Pressure below.
Water in a round-bottomed flask is heated until boiling; the flask is removed from the heat, stoppered, inverted, and cold water is poured over it, lowering the pressure inside and causing the water to boil again.
[Set-Up Time: 15 min.]
[Current Condition: Good]

4C30.2 Boiling at Reduced Pressure
Water will begin to boil as the air in the container is evacuated.
[Set-Up Time: 20 min.]
[Current Condition: Good]

4D - Kinetic Theory

30. Kinetic Motion

4D30.1 Kinetic Theory of Gases
A large quantity of tiny spheres are shaken in the bottom of container by a variable speed motor. As the kinetic energy of the balls is increased, they exert a greater pressure on the lid and push it upwards.
[Set-Up Time: 15 min.]
[Current Condition: Good]

4E - Gas Law

10. Constant Pressure

4E10.1 Cooling a Balloon
Pour liquid nitrogen over an air-filled balloon.
[Set-Up Time: 5 min.; Must request one day in advance]
[Current Condition: Good]

4F - Entropy and the Second Law

10. Entropy

4F10.10 Unmixing
Glycerine between two concentric cylinders is injected with a pattern of dye. When the inner cylinder is rotated, the pattern disappears, but when the turning is reversed the pattern re-appears! A very dramatic demonstration of the role of time and randomization in entropy. Also good for discussion of coutte flow/reynolds number.
[Setup time: 30 min.]
[Current Condition: Somewhat broken- needs advanced notice for attempted run]
alternatively, you can load a youtube video:

4F30.10 Stirling Engine
A Stirling Engine operates on top of a cup of hot water.
[Setup time: 5 min.]
[Current Condition: OK]