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Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1965
My interests are and have been primarily in those aspects of elementary particles that relate to the tiniest constituents of matter and to the forces that the constituents use to communicate. During and after graduate school, these interests led me to investigate the selection rules by which the weak interactions are governed, particularly as demonstrated by the hadrons. The rules for changes in electric charge, strangeness, and isotopic spin that such experiments demonstrated were important in later giving credibility to the quarks as the elementary constituents of hadronic matter.
In the late 1960's, I began to concentrate on experimental studies of the deep inelastic scattering of leptons (neutrinos) by nucleons. This technique has been a principle instrument in understanding and verifying many aspects of particles and forces which are presently part of the Standard Model: (1) the validity of the quark hypothesis, (2) the existence of neutral-current weak interactions as predicted from synthesis of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and (3) behavior of the strong force among quarks within the nucleon. My work on this program, which in its latter days came to be called the CCFR collaboration, continued until about 1990. More recently, this work was completed by Professors Shaevitz and Conrad from Columbia in the NuTev program.
In about 1985, I began working to prepare for the advent of a new era in deep inelastic scattering with the HERA accelerator. The machine was commissioned in 1991, and the ZEUS experiment began operation at that time. I have worked on taking and using HERA data since then. This novel collider permits observation of electron-proton collisions at energies more than a factor of 10 higher than previously available. My work at Columbia was done in collaboration with several past and present colleagues at Columbia, including Professors Caldwell and Parsons, and many other physicists throughout the world. We had an important role at Columbia in designing and constructing instrumentation, in accumulating and analyzing data for the ZEUS experiment, and in producing new scientific results. The first few years of operation demonstrated a new region of structure within the proton and new mechanisms to describe that structure. Later, we explored the scattering at energy transfers larger than the energies of the weak bosons. The high event rates have permitted measurements of structure functions in unexplored kinematic regimes, unique tests of the Standard Model, and sensitivity to phenomena that lie outside the Standard Model that are complementarity to other techniques exploring these energy regimes.
Since choosing emeritus status in 2004 and the completion of HERA operations, I have completed several analyses with ZEUS data with completing PhD students and look forward to more analyses from the data. I also have continued relationships with the Fermilab Research Alliance (on the Fermilab Board of Trustees) and with the Sanford Laboratory, the site of the future national deep underground lab (as co-chair of the Experimental Advisory Committee).
For a complete listing of publications see SPIRES
"Measurement of the deltaS=deltaQ Amplitude from Ke3 Decay", with J. D.Gallivan, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 25:1214 (1970).
"Measurement of the Rate of Increase of Neutrino Cross-Sections with Energy", with R. Blair, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 343 (1983).
"Nucleon Structure Functions from High Energy Neutrino Interactions with Iron and QCD Results", with D. MacFarlane, et al., Zeitschrift f r Physik C26, 1 (1984).
"Measurement of sin2(theta) and R in Deep Inelastic Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering", with P. G. Reutens, et al., Phys. Lett. 152B, 404 (1985).
"Deep Inelastic Lepton-Nucleon Scattering", with S. R. Mishra, Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science 39, 259 (1989).
"Design and Implementation of a High Precision Readout System for the ZEUS Calorimeter", with A. Caldwell, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A321:356 (1992).
"A Measurement of the Gross-Llewelyn Smith Sum Rule from the CCFR xF3 Structure Function", with W. C. Leung, et al., Phys. Lett. B317:655 (1993).
"Measurement of the Proton Structure Function F2 in ep Scattering at HERA", with M. Derrick, et al., Phys. Lett. B316:412 (1993).
"Search for Leptoquarks with the ZEUS Detector", with M. Derrick, et al., Phys. Lett. B306:173 (1993).
"Search for Lepton Flavor Violation in ep Collisions at 300-GeV Center-of-Mass Energy", with M. Dercik, et al., Z. Phys. C73:613 (1997).
"Comparison of ZEUS Data with Standard Model Predictions for ep -> eX Scattering at High x and Q2", with J. Breitweg, et al., Z. Phys. C74:207 (1997).
"The Standard Model", with M. K. Gaillard and P. Grannis, , invited article for APS Centenary, published in Rev.Mod.Phys.71 (1999) S96-S111.
"Neutron and Proton Structure Today", invited presentation to the Royal Society conference, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359 (2001), 241-25.